By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken through nearly 11 thousand humans positioned essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in response to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main entire description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical therapy of word constitution, be aware order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams through the Indian removing of the 1830s. this present day the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few childrens communicate the language. even if extra youngsters one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to protecting the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly vital. Compiled via the best scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic advisor to local audio system and an critical instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
As mentioned in chapter 1, there is a consider-able amount of interspeaker variation in words like hasjbish/ha$bis 'tail'. /h/ frequently has [c] (a voiceless palatal fricative) as a n allomorph before / E / , as in examples like the following: (2) katihchish [katr~E~b] 'how' When /k/ and /h/ are followed by a voiced consonant, a n epenthetic vowel breaks up the cluster. ] [takabah] [tokalih] [hokamih] 'to think' 'white' 'to place' 'to do so' 'oldest sibling' 'bitter' 'to push' 'to burn' The status of glottal stop as a phoneme in Choctaw is controversial.
Dance:^-ss 'He danced and. ' In Mississippi Choctaw and Oklahoma Choctaw, such forms contain a long vowel (thus the name 'lengthened grade'): (60) Hiilha-cha . . dance:^-ss 'He danced and . ' For this variety of Choctaw, phonetic glottal stops are not restricted to word-final position. Ulrich (1986, 1993) has suggested that other varieties of Choctaw may also have underlying glottal stops in wordmedial positions, but that they are deleted in the course of the phonological derivation. Although this analysis is promising, it requires underlying representations that are more distant from their surface realizations, and has not been widely adopted.
I consulted copies of several books of the Old Testament in the Widener and Andover Libraries a t Harvard University. The entire New Testament was published in 1848, though translations of the Gospels appeared separately in 1845. The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and Numbers were published in 1867, and the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings were published in 1852. References to the Choctaw Bible are by book, chapter, and verse. Most of these translations were completed by Cyrus Byington or Alfred Wright or both, two missionaries to the Choctaw.