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By Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Freeman, Charles

Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates concerning the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's function was once made to seem as a consensual ruling by way of the Council of Constantinople.

summary: Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates in regards to the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's position was once made to seem as a consensual ruling through the Council of Constantinople

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However, Nicaea was a Greek council, with virtually no participants from the Latin-speaking west of the empire. In the west, Christians tended to refer to the three members of the Trinity in rather general terms, such as ‘of equal majesty’. As this formulation accepts their equal status, the term Nicene Trinity is extended here to include this western approach, which is also close to the terminology used by the (Spanish) Theodosius in his legislation even when he issued this in the east. Strictly speaking, however, eastern and western Trinities remained distinct.

I revel in being asked why an eighth-century icon has ended up in a museum in Florence or to present a summary of Ruskin’s views on Venice. Perhaps most stimulating of all has been my thirty-year involvement with the International Baccalaureate’s Theory of Knowledge course, a student-centred introduction to critical thinking skills. Working with colleagues, now close friends, from all over the world and from a variety of disciplines, our debates are models of what intellectual enquiry should be.

In the short term, conquest could be exceptionally nasty. Often a city was taken and razed to the ground as an example to its neighbours. Revolts were brutally crushed, as the Jews found when three uprisings between AD 66 and 135 led to the destruction first of the Temple in Jerusalem and then of the whole city itself, which was later reconstituted as a Roman colony. 7 It was in the aftermath that local elites were drawn into Roman civilisation. The key was the city. In the east, cities had been the core of civilised life for centuries, and it was the imposition of the Pax Romana that allowed them to transfer their resources from defence into self-glorification.

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