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By David Thurmond

Rome was once in a position to help an enormous city inhabitants via supplying it with the rudiments of human nutrients within the type of processed meals. This quantity encompasses a cautious research of these meals strategies. The paintings is prepared at the foundation of the presumed value of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items corresponding to legumes, greens and culmination, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) which have been themselves the brokers for the maintenance of different meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological proof from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and glossy nutrients technological know-how.

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Additional resources for A Handbook of Food Processing in Classical Rome: For Her Bounty No Winter (Technology and Change in History) (Technology and Change in History)

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The most exuberant use of the technology, however, occurs in southern Gaul near Barbegal [Fig. 93 Used for over 100 years, it had eight pairs of wheels arranged along a descending millrace, each driving a separate set of millstones. , c. 17°, the correct figure, and 30°), part on some very dubious presuppositions. Re-excavation has now firmly established that early operation of the mill belongs to the early second century CE, perhaps the latter part of Trajan’s reign, and supports Sellin’s contention95 that the mill capacity was overestimated.

Mortars and pestles vary in size from the tiny forms used for braying herbs and medicaments to huge immobile stone basins where four pounders can work co-operatively. In Rome there were both wooden and stone forms and combinations of the two [Fig. 49 The mortar was the pila, the pestle the pilum (ironically, the Latin 46 White (1975): 9–10; John Storck and Walter Darwin Teague, Flour for Man’s Bread: A History of Milling (Minneapolis: U. of MN Press, 1952): 17–24. 47 Moritz (1958): 146–47. 48 Moritz (1958): 147–50; André (1961): 62–64; Max Wahren and Cristoph Schneider, Die Puls.

Note the etymological connection with modern polenta, made now almost exclusively with maize groats. For a modern experiment in processing barley, L. Foxhall, “Appendix: Experiments in the Processing of Wheat and Barley” in Foxhall and Forbes (1982): 77. 49 Cf. Moritz (1958): 12–28, 146–47; André (1961): 62–64; White (1975): 9–12. chapter one 34 Fig. 6. Roman mortars and pestles. (From White (1975): Fig. 4 and 5. Courtesy of Cambridge University Press). mortarium was not a mortar at all but a mixing bowl, though the term is used incidentally for the pila).

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