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By Sykuta M.E., Cook M.L.

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They might, for example, be roughly the same age or the same sex or both. They might all have little education or all be graduates or all have the same social origin. What you will notice, is that as the similarities pile up the more homogeneous the people become, the more you tend to think of them as a group and the more they may see themselves as having a common identity. It is not that physical similarity causes groups to form, it is just that they may kick the thought process in that direction.

If each saw the other as an out-group, then operational problems could ensue. The organization of work individualistic or group The real problem with understanding groups is that work itself rarely falls simply into either a group mode of operation or an individual mode. Most work processes have overtones of both. It would be appropriate at this point to differentiate purely individual work from purely group work. I 0 Individual differences in status only accepted. Group work: 0 0 0 An interdependent set of tasks; Uniform standards required; Shared resources; Competition for scarce resources.

Motivation is a constant process of trial and error. Criticism should fall on those who duck out not on those who fail. We have learned recently that the way we attribute the cause of a situation we see gives direction to what action we take. The same is true for motivation. In the absence of firm knowledge managers make assumptions about people in work. Rather like ‘orientation to work‘ these are large-scale manager assumptions about what will get people motivated. A well-known theory: McGregor McGregor polarized the assumptions about people in organizations into two extremes, then went hrther to suggest that managers adopt either of these extremes which then determines their style of management.

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