Native American Studies

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By Ofelia Zepeda

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Sample text

Are /were playing right here. 6. a. Hegam 'o aş nenok. b. 'O aş nenok hegam. 19 We are/were running over there. They are /were just speaking. NOTE: When you use the particle aş (just), it must follow the auxiliary, and in this case, the auxiliary may come first in the sentence, contrary to our general rule. THE IMPERFECTIVE AUXILIARY The sentences with independent subject pronouns illustrate another fact about Papago. The form of the auxiliary is different when the pronoun is different. The forms of the imperfective auxiliary are listed below, with their corresponding subject pronouns.

A. Hegam 'o aş nenok. b. 'O aş nenok hegam. 19 We are/were running over there. They are /were just speaking. NOTE: When you use the particle aş (just), it must follow the auxiliary, and in this case, the auxiliary may come first in the sentence, contrary to our general rule. THE IMPERFECTIVE AUXILIARY The sentences with independent subject pronouns illustrate another fact about Papago. The form of the auxiliary is different when the pronoun is different. The forms of the imperfective auxiliary are listed below, with their corresponding subject pronouns.

B. Gogs 'o g mimstol ha-huhu'id. c. Ha-huhu'id 'o g mimstol g gogs. The dog is/was chasing the cats. Note that only a plural object of the verb causes ha- to be added to the verb. A plural subject in a sentence does not cause ha- to be added to the verb. Sentences (18) and (19), for example, have plural subjects and singular objects; the verbs do not have the ha- prefix. 18. Cecia 'o nu:kud g 'ali. The girls are taking care of the baby. 19. Cecoj 'o ceposid g haiwan. The boys are branding the cow.

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