By Margarita Diaz-Andreu
Margarita Diaz-Andreu bargains an leading edge background of archaeology in the course of the 19th century, encompassing all its fields from the origins of humanity to the medieval interval, and all components of the area. the advance of archaeology is positioned in the framework of up to date political occasions, with a specific concentration upon the ideologies of nationalism and imperialism. Diaz-Andreu examines quite a lot of matters, together with the construction of associations, the conversion of the learn of antiquities right into a occupation, public reminiscence, adjustments in archaeological idea and perform, and the impact on archaeology of racism, faith, the idea in growth, hegemony, and resistance.
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Extra info for A World History of Nineteenth-Century Archaeology: Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Past
The second section of the chapter considers developments during the Enlightenment, looking at the philosophy and political thought underpinning the use of the past in the eighteenth century. Central to this is rationalism—the ideology that everything could be explained by self-regulating systems of laws—the use of the classics, claims for cultural diversity, the search for national pasts and the construction of a romanticized Greek past. The initial perception of antiquarians as people who were useful for their countries and the emergence of a group identity among them is assessed.
The sheer challenge that including all these diVerent aspects entails may explain why it has not been attempted before. Widely used handbooks like Daniel’s A Hundred and Fifty Years of Archaeology (1975) and Trigger’s A History of Archaeological Thought (1989) mainly focus on prehistory and to a certain extent the archaeology of the Great Civilizations, but silence the civilizations beyond Europe, Egypt and the Near East. The centuryold Adolf Michaelis Die archa¨ologischen Entdeckungen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1906) (A Century of Archaeological Discoveries, 1908) limited itself to the archaeology of the classical Great Civilizations, as did Ranuccio Bianchi Bandinelli’s Introduzione all’archeologia classica come storia dell’arte antica (Introduction to classical archaeology as history of ancient art) seventy years after.
The result was not a duet—native against foreign—but a chorus of many voices in many languages, that often talked to each other. Resistance was weaker in the Ottoman Empire, whose interest for the past of the Great Civilizations in the early modern period had been much lower. The diYculties faced in controlling the Powers’ desire for its Greek antiquities would only be addressed when young scholars educated—at least in part—in the West (mainly in Paris) attained positions of importance in the state machinery.