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By P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, A. Lebeda

P. T. N. SPENCER-PHILLIPS Co-ordinator, Downy mould operating workforce of the overseas Society for Plant Pathology collage of the West of britain, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, united kingdom e-mail: peter.spencer-phillips@uwe.ac.uk it's a very nice privilege to write down the preface to the 1st expert e-book on downy mildews because the significant paintings edited by way of D. M. Spencer in 1981. the assumption for the current e-book arose from the Downy mold Workshop on the foreign Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) held in Edinburgh in August 1998. Our goal used to be to ask experiences on chosen elements of downy mold biology from overseas gurus, and hyperlink those to a chain of similar brief contributions reporting new info. No try has been made to hide the breadth of downy mould examine, yet we are hoping that additional subject matters might be incorporated in destiny volumes, in order that this turns into the 1st of a chain following the 5 yr ICPP cycle.

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ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE It is not a coincidence nor is there a causal correlation that the occurrence of DM parasitism and the plants cultivated for food have depended on the production of secondary metabolites. The high levels of essential oils, mustard oils, and other secondary metabolites, that enhance the economic importance of crop plants in these taxa have rendered the plants vulnerable to the enzyme capacities and nutritional requirements of the DMs. Consider, for example, graminicolous grain crops (including flavour herbs such as Lemon Grass and sugar); pulses (plant proteins including enzymes); dicotyledonous grains (Amaranthus, Fagopyrum, Helianthus, Linum, Raphanus); green leaf (Brassicaceae, Lactuca, Chenopodium); tubers/roots (Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apiaceae, Alliaceae); and fruits (Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rosaceae).

Coevolution of the DMs is not, therefore, specialization from closely associated ancestral stocks. 1. A NOTE ON PHYTOPHTHORA Phytophthora and the dicotyledonicolous DMs share a common ancestry but divergent groups of angiosperm hosts. Phytophthora possesses a range of species with different degrees of specialization (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996). Any pattern of distribution with respect to the morphological (Roman numeral) groups of Stamps et al. (1990) either with host-range or with restriction to a geographic region is difficult to discern.

Hohl, 1983), auxotrophs can usually survive on the low concentrations normally leaked from autotrophs. Vitamin requirements are unlikely to be determining factors for obligate parasitism. The study of the physiology of host-parasite relationships has not so far yielded hints as to the coevolution of the species-specific relationship. The problem with nutritional studies (cf. Hohl, 1983) is that they have to take place in artificial environments. , fittest or most competitive) in the natural environment.

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