By Benjamin S. Orlove
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Extra resources for Alpacas, Sheep, and Men. The Wool Export Economy and Regional Society in Southern Peru
They also played an important role in the state religion. Llama sacrifice was a key element in several major imperial ceremonies. Techniques of breeding these animals were being developed. The Spanish introduced sheep in the sixteenth century, chiefly the 9 See Aparicio Vega (1965, 1971), Lanning (1967), Lewin (1967), Macéra (1966, 1968), Mörner (in press), Murra (1965), Rowe (1946), Sigsworth (1958), Silva Santisteban (1964), and South African Wool Board (1970). 10 The dog and the turkey were also domesticated in Mesoamerica, and the duck, the dog, and the guinea pig in the Andes.
Using llamas as pack animals, they bring wool (in fleeces and as craft items), hides, and meat to these lower zones, where they barter them for agricultural produce. This system is sufficiently well described elsewhere and does not need repetition here (Centeno Zela 1953; Concha Contreras 1971; Flores 1968; Custred 1974, Mayer 1971, 1974). The 40 The Wool Economy in Southern Peru FIGURE 1. Herders from the puna engage in long trips to agricultural zones. Using llamas as pack animals, they bring wool, hides, meat, and potatoes to these lower areas, where they exchange them for agricultural products.
The sectorial model draws elements from modernization and dependency theory but corrects some flaws. Like these two theories, it looks at large-scale processes and links social, economic, and political phenomena. It addresses the transformations generated by the growth of export economies and the expansion of national governments. It presupposes neither evolutionary nor revolutionary changes, however, and favors neither internal nor external dynamics. New elements from outside or a sudden shift in the internal balance of sectors may bring rapid change, but slower, steadier change from internal and external sources is also possible.