Native American Studies

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By Joane Nagel

Does activism subject? This ebook solutions with a transparent "yes." American Indian Ethnic Renewal strains the expansion of the yankee Indian inhabitants during the last 40 years, whilst the variety of local american citizens grew from fewer than one-half million in 1950 to just about 2 million in 1990. This quadrupling of the yank Indian inhabitants can't be defined via emerging delivery charges, declining demise charges, or immigration. as a substitute, the expansion within the variety of American Indians is the results of an elevated willingness of usa citizens to spot themselves as Indians. what's riding this elevated ethnic identity? In American Indian Ethnic Renewal, Joane Nagel identifies numerous old forces that have converged to create an city Indian inhabitants base, a reservation and concrete Indian organizational infrastructure, and a wide cultural weather of ethnic satisfaction and militancy. primary between those forces used to be federal Indian "Termination" coverage which, paradoxically, used to be designed to assimilate and de-tribalize local the US. Reactions opposed to Termination have been nurtured by way of the Civil Rights period surroundings of ethnic satisfaction to develop into a critical concentration of the local rights activist circulate often called "Red Power." This resurgence of yank Indian ethnic satisfaction encouraged elevated Indian ethnic id, introduced a renaissance in American Indian tradition, language, paintings, and spirituality, and at last contributed to the alternative of Termination with new federal rules maintaining tribal Self- selection. American Indian Ethnic Renewal deals a basic conception of ethnic resurgence which stresses either constitution and agency--the function of politics and the significance of collective and person action--in realizing how ethnic teams revitalize and reinvent themselves. students and scholars of yankee Indians, social routine and activism, and up to date usa historical past, in addition to the overall reader attracted to local American lifestyles, will all locate this an enticing and informative paintings

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7. Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival, p. 110. 8. , p. S. Bureau of the Census, American Indian Population Estimates by Tribe, unpublished table, 1981. 9. Ralph Linton, Acculturation in Seven American Indian Societies (New York Appleton-Century, 1940), p. 542. 10. , The Problem of Indian Administration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1928), pp. 6, 87, 96. 11. " Like other terms used to depict "Indian" ethnicity, such as "pan-Indian" or "intertribal," "supratribal" is an inclusive term used to refer to all native members of American society regardless of tribal affiliation.

Anchor Books, 1967]) as well as its specific application to the study of social problems (Malcolm Spector and John I. Kitsuse, Constructing Social Problems [New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1977]). For a retrospective view and current assessment of constructionism, see the set of papers edited by James A. Holstein and Gale Miller, Reconsidering Social Constructionism: Debates in Social Problems Theory (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993). 7. Yen Le Espiritu, Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992); George M.

71 Once particular ethnic groups are officially designated for resource allocation, the issue of proof of membership remains to be settled. 72 The right answer to the question often depends on who is doing the asking, adding another dimension of variability to ethnicity. In the case of American Indians, answers to the question of ethnic proof are equally varied, with Indian tribes offering differing rules for enrollment, rules that exclude many, sometimes the majority of individuals of Indian ancestry.

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