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This article is lavishly illustrated with full-color illustrations, intraoperative images and radiographs.
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Additional resources for AO Principles of Fracture Management in the Dog and Cat
Like a ball, the screw head slides down the inclined cylinder. Since the screw head is fixed to the bone via the screw shaft, it can only move vertically relative to the bone. The horizontal movement of the head, as it impacts against the angled side of the hole, results in movement of the bone fragment relative to the plate, and leads to compression of the fracture. 1-13 An alternative technique for compression plate application is to first secure the ends of the plate to the bone. The subsequent application of an eccentrically placed screw will compress the fracture, especially if the initially placed screw is temporarily backed out.
Recent developments have led to the principle of biological fracture healing in long bone fractures. This is characterized by minimal biological damage during the repair together with flexible fi xation. Minimal damage is achieved by eliminating anatomical reduction, by practicing indirect reduction techniques and by concentrating on axial alignment of the fragments. Less surgical trauma is therefore created. Flexible fi xation is achieved by wide bridging of the fracture zone using locked nails, bridge plating, or internal or external fi xators.
Healing will occur under optimal biological conditions rather than absolute stabi lity  . The issue of implant–bone contact has been addressed in a number of ways. Limited contact devices such as the LC-DCP (limited contact dynamic compression plate) reduce the plate –bone contact without loss of friction between the implant and bone to transmit forces. This friction is further avoided by the locked-screw technique (LCP, UniLock), which in turn reduces bone necrosis. 2 Instrumentation Instruments are required to facilitate the surgical approach to a fracture, to assist fracture reduction, and to create osteosynthesis.