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By Sammy C. Letema

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Extra info for Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities

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The MM dimensions are: • its scale, between large-scale, fixed price and small scale, flexible price systems. 3. , 2005). 2. Modernised sanitary mixtures: a paradigm shift in sanitary provision • • 35 the nature of flows, between separation and combination of water and waste flows; end-user participation, between participatory and technocratic (top-down) approaches. 4) contextualises sanitary provision in East African cities in terms of spatial-technical and institutional dimensions depicted by four axes.

Urban treatment loads in Kampala and Kisumu (NWSC, 2004; LVSWSB, 2008). 2. Wastewater flow forecast to sewers and catchments in Kisumu (LVSWSB, 2005a, 2008). Bugolobi biogas plant, Kisat oil separator, 30% of trickling filters in Bugolobi and 50% in Kisat, and clogging of sludge digesters in Bugolobi. Nyalenda was developed in 1976/77 to serve and take care of future wastewater flows from Kisumu Eastern catchment. The conventional trickling filters were developed in phases depending on sewer extensions and concomitant increase in sewage load: • Phase I (1957): 1 primary sedimentation tank, 1 trickling filter, 1 secondary sedimentation tank, 1 sludge pump, effluent re-circulation pumping station, 2 sludge digesters, and 12 sludge drying beds with capacity of 1,500 m3/d.

Kampala sanitation master plan threshold of 10 m3/d*ha for sewerage is used in Kisumu for comparison. 5). Besides, it will relieve pressure on Kisat STPs. Where it is technically and economically difficult to sewer, septic tanks are proposed for low-density areas. For those in low-income settlements, a mixture of public toilets with septic tanks and ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines with a design that allows for faecal sludge emptying are proposed, accompanied by hygiene sensitisation campaigns.

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