By Ronald M. Atlas, Jim C. Philp
A desirable exam of study and its real-world software. • presents international point of view in assurance of a huge diversity of bioremediation applied sciences together with bioinjection, bioaugmentation, and phytoremediation • Examines useful examples of bioremediation software, together with proper case reviews • Discusses the interactions of felony, clinical, and engineering ideas at the back of use of bioremediation for cleanup of infected land and aquifers
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Tabolized by chromosomally encoded enzymes. Interestingly, microbial transformation of some organic contaminants such as the industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) does not occur in oxygenated environments (69), with more rapid transformation of this contaminant under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Removal of chlorine from aromatics generally occurs much more readily in anaerobic environments (via reductive dechlorination), which is an important consideration when bioremediation operations for heavily chlorinated compounds are being designed.
24) similarly showed that phenanthrene biodegradation occurs only in the aqueous phase. The many observations of linear growth of bacteria and yeasts on slightly soluble substrates may be ex- 40 W PHILPETAL. plained by the need for the substrates to be in the aqueous phase. In the case of the PAHs, it has been shown that linear growth is due to mass transfer limitation from the solid phase to the liquid phase (135). The three main classes of hydrocarbons (aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons) vary in their biodegradability according to size and solubility.
In the United States, about 40% of the underground storage tanks have leaked and some 30,000 new releases are registered each year. About half of these facilitiesare used to store petroleum products. S. EPA estimates that refineries” have been built. These mini-refineries use only SO% ofthe oil (commercial refineries use 90%), with the rest dumped into the ground, contaminating water supplies, rivers, and fish. The Terek, Argun, and Sunzha river waters have at times been contaminated to levels 100 and 1,000 times above normal.