By Stephen C. Cowin
This article summarizes the knowledge of bone mechanics with entire insurance of the histology, body structure, and the phone and molecular biology of the bone. It covers mechanical strategies, mechanical homes of cortical and cancellous bone, bone variation, and clincally comparable concerns. content material: part I. simple biology -- built-in bone tissue body structure : anatomy and body structure / Webster S. S. Lee -- cellphone biology of bone / Robert J. Majeska -- Molecular biology concepts to degree skeletal gene expression / Marian F. younger and Suzanne C. Dieudonne -- developing transgenic mice to check skeletal functionality / Marian F. younger and Tianshun Xu -- Bone mineralization / Adele L. Boskey -- part II. suggestions from mechanics and imaging -- Mechanics of fabrics / Stephen C. Cowin -- Experimental options for bone mechanics / Charles H. Turner and David B. Burr -- In vivo size of bone deformations utilizing pressure gauges / Susannah P. Fritton and Clinton T. Rubin -- Imaging of bone constitution / Peter Ruegsegger -- part III. Mechanical and architectural homes -- Mechanical houses of cortical bone and cancellous bone tissue / X. Edward Guo -- Viscoelastic houses of cortical bone / Roderic Lakes -- Composite versions of bone homes / Eliana Lucchinetti -- Dense bone tissue as a molecular composite / Eliana Lucchinetti -- Quantification of cancellous bone structure / Anders Odgaard -- Elastic constants of cancellous bone / Bert van Rietbergen and Rik Huiskes -- power of trabecular bone / Tony M. Keaveny -- Observations of wear in bone / Karl J. Jepsen, Dwight T. Davy, and Ozan Akkus -- Bone harm mechanics / Dwight T. Davy and Karl J. Jepsen -- Ontogenetic adjustments in compact bone fabric homes / John D. Currey -- Mechanical results of postmortem alterations, renovation, and allograft bone remedies / R. Bruce Martin and Neil A. Sharkey -- part IV. move of fluids in bone -- Blood movement in bone / Howart Winet -- Interstitial fluid circulation / Melissa L. Knothe Tate -- Bone poroelasticity / Stephen C. Cowin -- Streaming potentials in bone / Solomon R. Pollack -- The intrinsic permeability of cancellous bone / Yves P. Arramon and Eric A. Nauman -- part V. Bone edition -- Pathophysiology of sensible edition of bone in home improvement and service in vivo / Allen E. Goodship and James L. Cunningham -- units and strategies for in vitro mechanical stimulation of bone cells / Thomas D. Brown -- Experiments on mobile mechanosensitivity : bone cells as mechanical engineers / Elisabeth H. Burger -- Mechanosensory mechanisms in bone / Stephen C. Cowin and Melvin L. Moss -- The fake premise in Wolff's legislations / Stephen C. Cowin -- Bone modeling and reworking : theories and computation / Richard T. Hart -- Mechanics of bone regeneration / Patrick J. Prendergast and Marjolein C. H. van der Meulen -- part VI. Clinically comparable concerns -- purposes of bone mechanics / Marta L. Villaraga and Catherine M. Ford -- Noninvasive size of bone integrity / Jonathan J. Kaufman and Robert S. Siffert -- Bone prostheses and implants / Patrick J. Prendergast -- layout and manufacture of bone alternative scaffolds / Scott J. Hollister ... [et al.]. summary: this article summarizes the knowledge of bone mechanics with complete assurance of the histology, body structure, and the cellphone and molecular biology of the bone. It covers mechanical ideas, mechanical houses of cortical and cancellous bone, bone variation, and clincally similar concerns. learn more...
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Additional resources for Bone mechanics handbook
Remodeling rate is dominated by mechanical usage and modulated by parathyroid hormone, thyroxin, growth hormone, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D and microdamage. ’’ 70,71 These maps show BMU-based turnover or remodeling does differ in different parts of the skeleton and different parts of a given bone at any moment. The reason for many of those differences is not known. Possible reasons are as follows: (1) In the region where microdamage occurs BMU-based remodeling increases to try to repair it. 73 For example, the longitudinal growth creates more spongiosa than needed for mechanical usage.
The shaft of cortical bone increases in width, with periosteal bone formation exceeding endocortical bone resorption; and 9. Bone elongation stops when the growth plate ossifies (epiphyseal closure) to form the continuous bone marrow cavity. A more-detailed description of this process can be found in any basic histology textbook. 5 Skeletal Mass and Its Changes2,59 A child’s bone bank represents the difference between bone added by growth and by modeling-dependent bone gain, on the one hand, and bone removed by remodeling-dependent bone loss on the other.
Remodeling increases as a result of disuse. 6 Bone Turnover1,5,7 Bone turnover depends on the surface-restricted activation frequency and on the surface-to-volume ratio. Activation frequency is the intensity of remodeling, the reciprocal of the average time interval between the start of consecutive cycles of remodeling at the same site. 4). Site measurements of turnover in the human skeleton have been limited to the rib and ilium. Cortical bone turnover in the rib is about 4%/year. In the ilium, activation frequency is about the same on cancellous, endocortical, and intracortical subdivisions of the endosteal surfaces, so the difference in bone turnover at this site is related entirely to the difference in surface-to-volume ratio.