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Towns within the historic international depended on deepest generosity to supply many easy facilities, in addition to anticipating top voters to pay for 'bread and circuses' - loose meals and public leisure. This selection of essays by way of top students from the united kingdom and united states explores the $64000 phenomenon of benefaction and public patronage in Roman Italy. starting from the overdue republican interval to the later Roman Empire, the contributions disguise a variety of subject matters, together with the effect of benefactions and benefactors at the city improvement of Roman Italy, on cultural and monetary job, and at the altering function of video games and fairs in Roman society. additionally they discover the connection among groups and their benefactors, no matter if those have been neighborhood notables, senators, or the emperor himself, and think about how the character of benefaction replaced less than the Empire.
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Additional info for Bread and Circuses: Euergetism and Municipal Patronage in Roman Italy
Other elite building activity which involved temples, such as the extensive rebuilding of the temple of Apollo at Cumae (Gabricì 1913), was directed towards restoration of the damage caused by the civil wars or towards temples of cults non-indigenous to Italy, such as those of Mithras or Isis (Jouffroy 1986: 73– 82). The overwhelming impression, however, is of a focusing of public activity on shrine to the imperial cult in its various manifestations. The period between the Social War and the death of Augustus was also the era in which many Italian cities underwent major remodelling and gained a whole suite of new amenities, although in some parts of Campania, this process begins 32 P U B L I C B U I L D I N G , U R B A N R E N E WA L A N D E U E RG E T I S M as early as 150BC.
24 It may have been Lucullus who first identified the problem, and saw that the answer was to widen the tax base by conquering more of Asia. That was done by Pompey, and thereafter there were no longer regular deficits: the cost of the 60 per cent of the Roman army previously born by Italian allies had been shifted onto the shoulders of the population of Asia Minor and Syria. Under the Principate too emperors could win popularity by shifting the costs of government from taxes on citizens to provincials: hence Tiberius’ integration of Cappadocia in AD18, and Caligula’s of Mauretania in 38.
Neither of these can be of much interest to commerce; and they make it clear that mutuum, too, should not be seen primarily as a commercial institution, but as an aspect of the support expected from friends, particularly in the face of sudden need (Aul. Gell. 22). One citizen gives another perishable goods which he cannot use himself, and in return he later expects to receive not the same objects (which will have been consumed or perished), but other objects of equivalent value. If interest was stipulated, then that was not essential to the arrangment.