By Jill St. Germain
Damaged Treaties is a comparative evaluate of Indian treaty negotiation and implementation concentrating on the 1st decade following the United States–Lakota Treaty of 1868 and Treaty Six among Canada and the Plains Cree (1876). Jill St. Germain argues that the “broken treaties” label imposed by way of nineteenth-century observers and perpetuated within the ancient literature has obscured the implementation adventure of either local and non-Native contributors and distorted our realizing of the relationships among them. consequently, historians have neglected the function of the Treaty of 1868 because the software in which the us and the Lakotas mediated the cultural divide isolating them within the interval among 1868 and 1875. In discounting the treaty historians have additionally did not relish the wider context of U.S. politics, which undermined a treaty approach to the Black Hills quandary in 1876. In Canada, nonetheless, the “broken treaties” culture has obscured the incredibly diversified realizing of Treaty Six held via Canada and the Plains Cree. the lack of both social gathering to understand the other’s place fostered the dangerous false impression that culminated within the Northwest uprising of 1885. within the first severe evaluation of the implementation of those treaties, damaged Treaties restores Indian treaties to a relevant place within the research of Native–non-Native kin within the usa and Canada. (20100601)
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Additional resources for Broken treaties: United States and Canadian relations with the Lakotas and the Plains Cree, 1868-1885
16 Canadian reluctance to broaden the scope of treaty terms remected a conviction, rooted in imperial and colonial contexts, of treaties as land surrender instruments only. Canada was not necessarily resistant to the idea of educational or agricultural aid, but it viewed these as objectives more properly addressed through legislation. S. S. legal jurisdiction. Canada did not face this dilemma, as indigenous peoples were deemed subjects of the Crown. They were not citizens in either Canada or the United States, but the former resolved the anomalous status of Indians in their legal designation as wards of the state and thus properly administered under legislation developed by a paternalistic authority.
Expansion. The new nation had as well its own expansionist agenda, given tangible form in the British North America Act, which created the Dominion. Section 11 allowed for the future admission of the colonies of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and British Columbia and the vast interior territory of Rupert’s Land. The ink was hardly dry on the British North America Act before Canada opened negotiations with Britain and the Hudson’s Bay Company (hbc), the latter the oflcial proprietor of Rupert’s Land, for the purchase of that western territory.
S. Army for protection purposes. The Homestead Act was equally signilcant. S. West into the hands of individual citizens, it offered 160 acres of land to the head of a family or to an individual over twenty-one for a nominal initial payment, with full title granted after lve years’ permanent residence. To land-hungry Americans, the legislation was an invitation to expand into the Plains West. S. S. society, involving land and social organization. European nations had justiled the extension of political authority over North American territory by right of discovery and conquest.