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By B. H. Warmington

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A Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 MODERN INTERPRETATIONS IJ difficult to talk of class-consciousness or a broadly agreed community of interests among the poor. We may still wonder whether the plebeians did articulate grievances and demands, whether they were generally conscious of their rights and liberties as something achieved by earlier plebeian struggles and not gifts from above: might some of them even have viewed civil wars as revolutionary activities or at least deliberate blows against their oppressors?

The spread of Roman administration to Africa in 146 and to Asia in 13 3 onwards (to which we will return) is clearly relevant. So too is the presence of Romans and Italians as private individuals in these areas. There is solid evidence for the settlement of Romans and Italians in Sicily and Spain; the evidence for their presence in other regions of the Mediterranean is more scattered but equally important. The family of the Rammii, for example, is now attested in Thessaly in the middle of the third century and it was surely a Roman who about 200 set up the genealogy of Romulus and Remus on Chios.

Didius (cos. 98). This last war was notorious for Didius' treacherous massacre of the whole population of Colenda, a settlement founded by his predecessor. 6 The value of Spain to the Romans, as to the Carthaginians before them, lay in its provision of auxiliary soldiers, especially cavalry and light-armed troops, grain and above all base and precious metals. Polybius stated that within a circuit of 20 stades (4 kilometres) round New Carthage there were 40,000 workers in the silver-mines, whose product was worth 2 5,000 denarii a day.

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