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By Eduard Imhof

Eduard Imhof's vintage publication Cartographic aid Presentation is once more to be had. in the self-discipline of cartography, few works are thought of classics within the experience of conserving their curiosity, relevance, and idea with the passage of time. One such paintings is Imhof's masterpiece on aid illustration. As a different show of research and portrayal, this is often a great instance of the necessity for cartography to mix mind and pictures in fixing map layout difficulties. the variety, aspect, and clinical artistry of his strategies are provided in a educating context that places this paintings in a category on its own, with common importance.

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6 millimeters depending on the scale. As a result of such accuracies, the lines are usually very true to character. Β. Accuracy in surveying terrain surfaces 23 Using point-by-point survey with plane table or tacheometer, the edge lines are plotted by visual estimation which may then, of course, lead to large errors in form and, in large-scale plans, to local displacements of several millimeters. 3. The examination of contour lines For decades, geodesists and topographers have been concerned about the lack of a good method for the testing of accuracies, or, more generally, of the examination of the quality of groups of cartographic contours.

The value m L depends upon the angle of slope; the zone being narrow in steep, and broad in flat terrain. If we know the constants A and Β of the Koppe equation for a map series, the zone width can be constructed for any desired angle of slope. This is shown in Figure 19 for angles 2°, 5°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 45° and 60° using the tolerance standards of five different plan and map series at scales from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000. At the top of this figure lies a profile, each part of which passes through differing angles of slope.

On a map, χ and y are indicated by their graphic location; the elevation by the added spot height value. The positional error, that is, the deviation of the mapping result from the actual ( " t r u e " ) location of the point, is likewise referred to these three coordinate directions or distributed among them. These three actual or "true" errors εχ, ey, and εΗ are, strictly speaking, never known, since it is never possible to measure any quantity with absolute accuracy. Instead of the true values, certain control values or adjusted values obtained from a large number of measurements of the same desired magnitude quantity.

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