By Alexander Maxwell
At the flip of the 19th century, Hungary used to be the positioning of a countrywide awakening. whereas Hungarian-speaking Hungarians sought to assimilate Hungary’s ethnic minorities right into a new inspiration of nationhood, the country’s Slavs as a substitute imagined a proud multi-ethnic and multi-lingual country whose electorate may well freely use their local languages. The Slavs observed themselves as Hungarian voters conversing Pan-Slav and Czech dialects -- and but have been the origins of what may develop into within the 20th century a brand new Slovak kingdom. How then did Slovak nationalism emerge from multi-ethnic Hungarian loyalism, Czechoslovakism and Pan-Slavism? right here Alexander Maxwell offers the tale of ways and why Slovakia got here to be.
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Additional info for Choosing Slovakia: Slavic Hungary, the Czechoslovak Language and Accidental Nationalism (International Library of Political Studies)
46 Zay set forth a detailed policy of Magyarization in his 1841 Protestantism, Magyarism, Slavism. 47 The most striking word in this long-winded passage is the word “only,” to which I have added emphasis. Perhaps Zay did not appreciate how much he demanded: he sought the extinction of Hungary’s Slavic culture. ”48 Zay sought to unify the Lutheran and Calvinist churches, and imposed Hungarian as the sole language of church administration. ”49 These events will be discussed in detail below, for now note merely that the pressure to Magyarize prevented Slovak intellectuals from sharing in the optimism of the Reform Era.
41 This bait-and-switch characterized most formulae of the Magyar politikai nemzet: authors strategically conflated “citizen of Hungary” and “ethnic Magyar” in order to justify Magyar supremacy. The Magyar politikai nemzet nevertheless proved an effective rhetorical device for those Magyars who sought to justify Magyarization. ] We demand nothing more than what the English ask of the Celtic inhabitants of Wales and high Scotland, nothing more than the French ask of Brittany or Alsace. We want that all public documents in Hungary, including baptismal registries and assembly protocols, will be written in Hungarian, we want that the language of instruction will be Hungarian, which to some degree (in Protestant schools) has already been carried out in the course of this year, with a word, that the Hungarian language in every respect accepts all the rights of Latin; Slavic may be satisfied with those rights that it possessed earlier — Hungarian will however never violently force itself into the domestic circle.
W. ”97 Tisza also dismantled the Slovak school system. 98 The 1868 Nationalities Law had explicitly endorsed education in languages other than Hungarian, but by the 1880s, state schools were exclusively Magyar. ”99 The educational struggle then turned to church schools. Károly Khuen-Héderváry, the Hungarian representative in Croatia, provides a representative statement of Magyar opinion: From the national point of view it is undesirable under all circumstances to permit the establishment of schools that are purely ethnic in character.