By Brian Breed, Cynthia Damon, Andreola Rossi
Civil wars, greater than different wars, sear themselves into the reminiscence of societies who suffer them. this is often fairly precise at Rome, the place in a interval of one hundred fifty years the Romans fought 4 epochal wars opposed to themselves. the current quantity brings jointly interesting new views at the topic through a global crew of amazing members. the root of the research is large, encompassing literary texts, documentary texts, and fabric tradition, spanning the Greek and Roman worlds. awareness is dedicated not just to Rome's 4 significant conflicts from the interval among the 80s BC and advert sixty nine, however the body extends to interact conflicts either earlier and lots more and plenty later, in addition to post-classical structures of the topic of civil conflict at Rome. Divided into 4 sections, the 1st ("Beginnings, Endings") addresses the elemental questions of while civil battle begun in Rome and whilst it ended. "Cycles" is worried with civil battle as a recurrent phenomenon ceaselessly. "Aftermath" makes a speciality of makes an attempt to place civil conflict long ago, or, conversely, to say the legacy of earlier civil wars, for greater or worse. eventually, the part "Afterlife" presents perspectives of Rome's civil wars from extra far-off views, from these present in Augustan lyric and elegy to these in a lot later post-classical literary responses. As an entire, the gathering sheds new gentle at the ways that the Roman civil wars have been perceived, skilled, and represented throughout various media and historic classes.
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Extra resources for Citizens of Discord: Rome and Its Civil Wars
Ego populi consuetudinis non sum ut dominus, at ille meae est. ut rationi optemperare debet gubernator, gubernatori unus quisque in navi, sic populus rationi, nos singuli populo. The people has power over itself, individuals are in the power of the people. So just as each person should correct his own usage if it is bad, so the people should correct its own. I am not in the position of a master of the people’s usage, but it is of mine. As the helmsman ought to obey reason, and each member of the crew ought to obey the helmsman, so the people ought to obey reason, and we ought to obey the people.
Ambition compelled many men to be liars, to have one thing ready on the tongue and something else hidden in the heart, to judge friendship and enmity by advantage rather than fact, to look good rather than to be good. At ﬁrst these vices grew slowly, and were occasionally punished; later, when the contagion spread like a plague, the citizen body changed its nature, and power that had once been just and upright became cruel and intolerable. Sallust’s two monographs were written probably in the late 40s, two or three years after the appearance of Varro’s “biography of the Roman people” (and the proscription of its author).
As for your ﬁnal comment that the senate not only can but ought to serve the people, what philosopher could be so weak, so soft, so feeble, so committed to the standard of physical pleasure and pain, as to assert that the senate serves the people, when the people itself has handed over to the senate the power of controlling and guiding it, like reins? Crassus had taken it for granted in his speech that the senate was the servant of the people. Cicero makes Antonius admire Crassus’ eloquence but reject his view of the constitution, assuming instead not only that the senate guides and controls the people as a rider guides and controls his horse but also that its authority to do so was formally conferred by the people itself.