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By Robert Graves

Claudius has survived the murderous intrigues of his predecessors to develop into, reluctantly, Emperor of Rome. right here he recounts his strangely profitable reign: how he cultivates the loyalty of the military and the typical humans to fix the wear and tear attributable to Caligula; his relatives with the Jewish King Herod Agrippa; and his invasion of england. however the becoming paranoia of absolute energy and the infidelity of his promiscuous younger spouse Messalina suggest that his success won't final eternally. during this moment a part of Robert Graves's fictionalized autobiography, Claudius - wry, rueful, consistently inquisitive - brings to existence probably the most scandalous and violent occasions in history.

Includes an creation via Barry Unsworth, in addition to explanatory footnotes.

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It is not possible to discover what number of Roman ships were built for Pompey's campaign, but when the Civil War broke out the main naval forces in the Mediterranean were those of client states which supported Pompey. 28 Caesar had built some ships to use against Gauls and Britons and was able to have in commission about half as many ships as his enemies once he controlled Italy. As the spread of Alexander's power by land caused the Persian fleet to wither away, so Caesar by his victories on land maimed the sea power of his enemies.

Even so, the strategy that led to Actium was more military than naval, and its truest effect was on land. Agrippa's victory over Sextus Pompeius had been attributed to the greater size of his new Roman ships and their effect in a set battle. 29 With less skilled rowers he could only hope to win at sea by forcing his enemies to stand in his path and fight it out as a kind of land battle. He apparently trusted to his generalship on land to reach a position in which he could fight at advantage on land unless his opponents offered him the kind of battle he might win at sea.

Legions were raised and disbanded again after short periods, and the fact that the Roman legionaries were drawn from the independent peasants meant that most of them were anxious to return to their farms. T h e Italian allies, the socii, were probably enlisted from the same class, even if they were at times kept longer in the field because they had less influence to back their wish for disbandment. Where, as in Spain under the elder Scipio Africanus, the troops were kept under one general in one region for several years, it was possible to make 2o T H E ROMAN ART OF WAR tactical advances, but these seem to have been lost in the second century because these conditions were not repeated.

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