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Again soreness is multifaceted and it calls for the sharing of rules and information to enhance the administration provided to sufferers.
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Additional info for Clinical Anatomy & Management of Low Back Pain
Reference/year/ country of origin manufacturing workers USA Barrie (1990b) USA Prospective cohort 3020 aircraft manufacturing workers Spinal f1exibiHty No association between spinal f1exibiHty and future back pain reporting over a 4-year follow up Bigos (1991b) Prospective cohort 1576 aircraft manufacturing workers Work perceptions and psychosocial factors; rustory of prior back problems; demographic factors Current back pain, job dissatisfaction, and emotional distress had the strongest association with LBP over a 4-year follow up Boshuizen (1993) Netherlands Cross-sectional 4054 working men between ages 25 - 55 Cigarette smoking; occupation Moderate association between smoking and LBP Cady (1979) USA Prospective cohort 1900-fire-fighters Physical capacities Increased fitness was assOCiated with a decreased number of worker's compensation claims for back injury over a 3-year follow up Chaffin (1973) USA Prospective cohort 411 workers in jobs requiring some manual labour Job lifting strength rating (LSR) calculated for each job taking into account the amount lifted and distance of the object from the person for two-handed sagittal plane lifting Load lifting was associated with increased LBP over I year of follow up Daltroy (1991) Case-control 228 cases, 228 controls, postal workers Job classification, ergonomic factors, demographics, worker'S compensation history History of a back injury clainl, younger age, recent job change, and rustory of non-back injury clainl were associated with LBP Cross-sectional 10 404 respondents representative of the USA Smoking and obesity Heavy smoking and obesity were independently associated with LBP Prospective cohort 230 applicants for heavy manual labour work Isokinetic trunk strength; lifting strength No association between isokinetic trunk evaluation and LBP over a 6-year follow up Ebrall (1 994b) Australia Case-control 38 schoolboys between ages 12 and 19 Anthropometric dinlensions Four of 13 measurements (sitting height, pelvic height, suprapelvic height and upper body segment) were associated with low back pain Harber (1994) Prospective cohort 179 nurses Worksite factors; prior back pain; psycllOsocial factors; training Only prior Significant back pain episode was associated with LBP over an 18-month follow up Heliovaara (1991) Finland Cross-sectional 5673 Finnish adults between 30 and 64 years of age Occupational physical stress, occupational mental stress, anthropomorprucs, sociodemographic factors Age.
5. e. vertebral body (VB), ped icles (P) and the poster ior elements (PE), are show n by the broken white lines which are pa rall e l to the anterior and poste rior margins of L I ver tebra . 7. process; VN between the = su pe rior and infe rior articular process facets. 5. The nerve roots are bathed in cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord to the intervertebral foramen. 7. 6 cleady demonstrates how the superior to inferior dimension of the fourth and fifth spinous processes is considerably less than that of the second and third spinous processes.
15 A 200 �m thick hist ol ogical section cut in approximately the horizontal pla ne from a 72-year-old m al e Note the equina (C) wi th i n the dural sac w i t h its du ral (D) and arachnoid (A) memb rane s.