By Walter R. Niessen
Explores the operation and review of incineration structures for damaging and non-hazardous gaseous, liquid, sludge, and sturdy wastes. Identifies layout parameters and working features for a variety of incineration platforms.
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Extra resources for Combustion and Incineration Processes
Carbon, available or net hydrogen (hydrogen other than in moisture and combined water), oxygen, total sulfur, nitrogen, and ‘‘ash’’ are always reported. Oxygen is generally determined by difference, and thus both the value for ‘‘percent oxygen’’ and the ‘‘combined water’’ value may be in error. In calculations relating to waste disposal systems, it may be appropriate to request analyses for chlorine and for environmentally signiﬁcant elements (such as arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead) and for other elements that could inﬂuence the combustion process or would be important to air pollution or water pollution assessments.
Cross-Checking Between Fuel and Flue Gas Analysis In studying waste incineration processes, the skilled analyst should take all reasonable opportunities to assemble several independent data sets and, using the techniques illustrated above, cross-check for consistency. Then, when errors appear, application of insights as to probable sampling or analytical error and the potential for waste variability can allow convergence on a ‘‘best’’ solution. Frankly, stopping short of such crosschecking is foolish.
A 5% level of signiﬁcance is a reasonable criterion to determine whether the data are normal (or log normal). If the level of signiﬁcance is equal to or greater than 5%, then the hypothesis that the data are normal (or log normal) cannot be rejected. b. Statistical Calculations. Once a probabilistic model has been selected, the mean, variance (square of the standard deviation), and other statistical quantities can be generated. For convenience, the formulas for the key statistics are summarized here for the normal and log normal cases.