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By Samuel N. C. Lieu, Dominic Montserrat

Constantine examines the reign of Constantine, the 1st Christian emperor and the founding father of Constantinople. From a number of angles: historic, historiographical and legendary. the amount examines the situations of Constantine's reign and the historic difficulties surrounding them, the various money owed of Constantine's existence and the plethora of well known medieval legends surrounding the reign, to bare the several visions and representations of the emperor from saint and buyer of the Western church to imperial prototype. Constantine: historical past, Historiography and Legend provides a complete and arresting examine of this significant and debatable emperor.

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36 But no such shield appears on the Arch of Constantine at Rome. 39 How far these Notitia devices are authentic is open to question, but some at least can be paralleled, for example by shields on the Arch of Galerius at Salonika or in the Herod scene on the ivory reliquary casket of Brescia. 40 Often the Notitia shield devices are geometric, sometimes they include faces or figures of divine beings, emperors and other animals, but there is not one instance of a Chi-Rho. 43 Judging by the silver dish of Constantius II, the Chi-Rho shield may have been carried only by the Christian emperor’s personal bodyguards, the forty candidati seconded from the scholae.

Biggs, New York 1980). Significantly, the volume itself has the title Die Reichskirche nach Konstantin dem Grossen. The following discussion assumes the historical reconstruction argued in detail in Barnes 1993:19–164. , Apol. c. Ar. 71–85, see Barnes 1993:29–30. 10–12. 42, cf. Warmington 1985. Hefele and Leclercq 1907; Marot 1960:19–43. For an assessment of the impact of Constantine on conciliar practice, see de Vries 1971: 55–81, who concludes that ‘die bisher verfolgte, aber freie Kirche, wird langsam zur “Reichskirche”’.

4). 20 3 CHRISTIANITY AND THE LATE ROMAN ARMY Roger Tomlin My text is taken from the second book of St Ambrose, Concerning the Faith: ‘The army is led, not by military eagles and the flight of birds, but by Your name, Lord Jesus, and Your worship’. 2 What then was the impact of Constantine’s new religion upon the army in the century that elapsed between his Christian victory at the Milvian Bridge (28 October 312) and the Gothic sack of Rome (24 August 410), those milestones in what Gibbon calls the triumph of barbarism and religion?

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