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By Andrew Wyatt, John Zavos

The world's greatest democracy has skilled strife considering the fact that its inception in 1947. The individuals to this research learn traits in Indian and Pakistani politics through the past due twentieth and early twenty first centuries while targeting the fragmentation of the physique politic.

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The proportion of objectors was fixed at three quarters and it was adopted in the Congress’s constitution in 1908. Sitaramayya, History of the Indian National Congress, 87. 40. McGarry and O’Leary, ‘Introduction’, Ch. 1. 41. In the next section I analyse the original constitutions of India and Pakistan, enacted in 1950 and 1956 respectively. I do not look at subsequent developments, with the exception of the inclusion of linguistic reorganisation within the Indian constitutional framework in 1956.

In 1960, the bilingual Province of Bombay was divided into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat after violent language riots. Demands for a Punjab state were also resisted at first because they were perceived as being religiously (Sikh) motivated. 43 Accordingly, in 1966 ‘greater Punjab’ was split between Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (although the latter did not receive full state recognition until 1971). 44 Several new states have since been created in the north-east of India, and it would appear that ethnicity has also been granted recognition as an ‘informally valid’ basis for political-administrative reorganisation under certain circumstances.

India eventually conceded the recognition of linguistic provinces, and reorganised its federal system along these lines in 1956. This only occurred after pressure from within the Congress Party and from outside. However, as discussed, India did not change the composition of the upper chamber to give equality of representation to all the linguistic provinces or create executive weightage along these lines. 66 Pakistan, which did not face the same call for linguistic reorganisation as India, moved in the opposite direction with the One Unit Plan and by so doing removed the opportunity to create institutional security for these identities.

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