By Warren Robertson
This interdisciplinary examine integrates textual research of the Hebrew Bible and similar historic close to jap fabric with social idea and archaeology which will articulate the traditional Israelites' taken-for-granted understandings (doxa) of usual mess ups, their highbrow and theological demanding situations to these understandings, and their highbrow and theological reconstructions thereof. After a survey of textual and archaeological facts for normal failures within the old close to japanese and Mediterranean global, Robertson demonstrates that universal understandings of them are solid by way of punishment for covenant infidelity. despite the fact that, while average failures are understood as such, their arbitrary destruction demanding situations these taken-for-granted assumptions. The conflict among cognitive expectation and experiential truth produces cognitive dissonance. Responses, then, are available in the try and go back to cognitive, if now not social, stability.
Several responses have been practiced and articulated via the traditional Israelites in regards to the retributive figuring out of average (and different communal) failures: steer clear of and/or try and hinder the disrupting event by using apotropaic and different ritual thoughts, protest the pain of the blameless, revise the assumptions approximately divine punishment and/or divine personality, revise the assumptions approximately human activities, or depression of choosing any correlation among human motion and divine punishment.
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Extra info for Drought, Famine, Plague and Pestilence: Ancient Israel's Understandings of and Responses to Natural Catastrophes
He maintains that collective representations are the socially variable expressions of universal categories of thought. 22Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labor, 53, quoted in William Ramp, “Effervescence, Differentiation and Representation in The Elementary Forms,” in On Durkheim’s Elementary Forms, 139. 23Fields, introduction to Elementary Forms, xix; Durkheim, Elementary Forms, 209-10. Clifford Geertz’s definition of symbols is comparable. Symbols, he says, are “extrinsic sources of information in terms of which human life can be patterned”; “Ideology As a Cultural System,” in Interpretation of Cultures, 216.
SOCIAL THEORY 41 collective thoughts and values are focused and articulated by the group. 21 To summarize thus far, external collective consciousness is first internalized by individuals of a group, and then that which has become internal is again externalized as a collective representation. Furthermore, a collective representation is, as Durkheim says, “a force that stirs up around us a whole whirlwind of organic and psychological phenomena,”22 making it not only the objectification of collective thought, but the catalyst of collective conduct.
81 76Hector Avalos, Illness and Health Care in the Ancient Near East: The Role of the Temple in Greece, Mesopotamia, and Israel (HSM 54; Atlanta: Scholar’s Press, 1995). 77Eva Panagiotakopulu, “Pharaonic Egypt and the Origins of Plague,” Journal of Biogeography 31 (2004): 273. 78John Wilkinson, “Philistine Epidemic of 1 Samuel 5 and 6,” ExpTim 88 (1977): 140. See also William MacArthur, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46 (1952): 209-12, 464; John B. Geyer, “Mice and Rites in 1 Samuel 5-6,” VT 31 (1981): 293-304; and Lawrence I.