By Michael Levi, Petrus C. van Duyne
The phenomenon of psycho-active medicines, and our reactions to them, is without doubt one of the such a lot interesting issues of the social heritage of mankind. beginning with an research of the 'policy of worry' during which legislation enforcement is 'haunted' through drug funds, medicines and cash bargains an intensive reconsideration of this hugely contentious issue.In this fascinating ebook, Petrus C. van Duyne and Michael Levi reveal an ever-unfolding sequence of difficulties: the proliferation of mind-influencing components the issues of overseas drug law the interplay among markets and financial actors, with the resultant accumulating of big quantities of crime-money. The social, cultural and financial points of this crime-money are explored, along the continuing chance it poses to the valid economic climate and the country.
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Extra resources for Drugs and Money: Managing the Drug Trade and Crime Money in Europe (Organizational Crime)
As long as the aims of the CIA were complied with, corruption, deceit and abuse of the US anti-drug aid programmes by local potentates have rarely been an objection to continuation of such aid. The abuse was simply swept under the carpet. For example, in the late 1970s, the aerial spraying of cannabis plantations in Mexico appeared to be a scam: herbicides were unloaded in the desert or ﬁelds were simply sprayed with water. If herbicides were used at all, it was for the purpose of extorting fellow drug cultivators to pay to ‘protect’ themselves from spraying.
1 However, as we will see, there is no ‘subsidiary theme’, but an interwoven pattern of policy threads, in which the US component has traditionally but not universally been very strong, as the real or apparent formulator of the drugs policy. Indeed, many brands of drug, like cocaine, heroin and MDMA, were discovered or invented in Europe during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the impact of their consumption was ﬁrst felt and disapproved of in the US, after which there followed international prohibition.
It was not a one-dimensional development. On the way towards prohibition, many inﬂuences and interests as well as zealous moral crusaders came together and 3 The British delegate, Hutson, added if it had not been ‘for the white drug problem in the USA . . the suppression of the raw material and their indigenous consumption in a relatively harmless form [in the production countries] would not have carried on as far as it has’ (quoted in Bewley-Taylor, 1999; emphasis by Hutson). 4 France maintained already a strict control policy at home and a lenient opium policy in its colonies, particularly in Indo-China.