By M. Pigeon, R. Pleau
This complete and authoritative overview of sturdiness of concrete in chilly environments will permit concrete fabrics experts and practicing engineers to appreciate the mechanisms answerable for deterioration of concrete via freeze/thaw action.
summary: This entire and authoritative evaluate of sturdiness of concrete in chilly environments will let concrete fabrics experts and practicing engineers to appreciate the mechanisms accountable for deterioration of concrete via freeze/thaw motion
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Extra info for Durability of Concrete in Cold Climates
This value is approximately 100 times smaller than the common value of the spacing factor of air voids in properly air-entrained concrete. 35–2 µm pores, and not to the incorporation of air bubbles (10–1000 µm in size), because these pores could act as ‘micro air voids’ to protect the cement paste against freezing and thawing cycles. Litvan believes that the ratio between the quantity of air bubbles and that of these pores in the paste is probably constant, which would explain why the role of these pores has not been detected by the various investigators studying the frost resistance of concrete.
35–2 µm pores must not be filled with water when concrete freezes. On the other hand, it is known that the largest capillary pores in hardened cement paste (which are about the same size as the pores observed by Litvan in air-entrained concretes) rapidly become empty when the relative humidity decreases slightly below 100% in concrete. The validity of Litvan’s new hypothesis is thus related to the degree of saturation of concrete at the time of freezing. It cannot apply to fully saturated concrete, but could help to explain why the frost resistance of concrete increases so rapidly when the relative humidity decreases below 100%.
425–438. G. (1972) Phase transitions of adsorbates IV—Mechanism of frost action in hardened cement paste. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 55(1), 38–42. G. (1983) Air entrainment in the presence of superplasticizers. ACI Journal, 80(33), 326–331. 44 Durability of Concrete in Cold Climates MacInnis, C. J. (1968) Effect of degree of saturation on the frost resistance of mortar mixes. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 65, 203–207. M. (1981) Superplasticizers: their effect on fresh and hardened concrete.