Rome

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By Nicholas Sekunda, Simon Northwood, Richard Hook

The early Romans have been just one of a few peoples that inhabited Iron Age crucial Italy. From the eighth to the third century BC, the Romans undertook territorial growth, and clash with neighbouring tribes and cultures ended in open struggle, so much significantly with the Samnites. Alliances sprang have been created too - however the upward thrust of Rome was once unstoppable. This identify covers the gear, weaponry and get dressed of the early Romans, from the normal origin in 753 BC to the 3rd century BC, the place the dominance of Rome used to be past problem. It additionally offers with advancements in battle, masking the early cavalry, the pre-hoplite military, the hoplite military and the manipular military. Etruscan, Latin, and Samnite struggle also are mentioned.

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The earliest datable pieces of Augustan pottery from San Giovanni are two fragments of Italian terra sigillata of Haltern Type 1, or a variant of it, datable ca. 20 BC-AD 15 (they include No. 2 in our catalogue, below. Cf. Simpson 1986). 9 km northwest of San Giovanni - has yielded Italian terra sigillata of this type. That settlement goes back to at least the fourth century BC, but it may well have developed into a village attached to the villa at San Giovanni. Evidently the foundation of the villa was one of the first initiatives in the redevelopment of the area under the Principate.

These may represent remnants of an earlier, now largely felled, beech forest. Thus, the oaks here may be successional. The results of the forest survey indicate that the diversity of tree genera within the forest stands, while conforming generally with the geographically anticipated composition (Table 3), are less variable in character than they would be under natural conditions. ) were found. Chestnut trees evidently were present in early times, as the use of such placenames as Castagna la Corte and San Nicola di Castagna indicates; the absence of a sizeable fir component has been discussed above.

Twelve sites (including San Giovanni) can be dated to the Julio-Claudian period, and so are broadly contemporary with the first half of our Period 1. Their distribution is shown in Figure 14a, with symbols indicating their ranking in terms of the estimated original area of each site. The early villa at San Giovanni, which appears to have been fairly typical of villas in the mountainous interior of Italy, as argued in chapter 4, measured approximately 4,000 m2, and we have taken this figure as a convenient gauge for assessing the significance of site sizes in the survey area.

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