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By Peter F. Sugar

The function of the 3 significant isms of the 20 th century (Fascism, Communism and Nationalism) and their significance within the historical past of 9 jap ecu international locations (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the previous Yugoslavia) is roofed.

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Sample text

In an area already so divided, these additional sources of divisiveness were unwelcome. ” While these external factors were important, considerable credit for the first steps toward the construction of an Albanian national consciousness must go to a handful of patriots (primarily in southern Albania and abroad) who, removed from the still largely illiterate population of Albania, often served to link the various parts of the country. Although very much divided in terms of goals, most of these patriots, like Abdul Frasheri and his brothers, were involved in an unarmed struggle to achieve cultural autonomy which they perceived as the necessary first step toward the creation of national sentiments.

Enver Hoxha and State-of-Siege Nationalism The experience of World War II in Albania, like that of World W ar I, served both to reinforce and to undermine the growing nationalist sentiment. Once again, the ordeal of foreign occupation did much to reinforce Albanian distinctiveness. The divisive effect of the war, however, was more profound. In the 1920s blood-feud deaths in some areas of Albania accounted for up to 40 percent of all deaths. Michael Schmidt-Neke, Entstehung und. Ausbau der Königsdiktatur in Albanien, 1912-1939 (München: R.

Alia’s challenges included the need to function under the cult of personality that still surrounded Hoxha, who lived on as the father of the socialist nation and as its chief theorist and intellectual. Hoxha’s widow Nexhmije served as the guardian of ideological purity. Far more serious, however, were the economic difficulties that faced Alia almost immediately. Hoxha’s extreme centrism and his emphasis on heavy industry, as well as the economic isolation that was the result of his policies, soon led to dislocation, stagnation, and shortages.

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