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Tensions can also arise if the region feels that the central government’s share of oil revenue is “unfairly” large. Armed Conflict and the Company Most international oil companies have taken a “neutral” stance on the nature of hostcountry regimes, noting that companies should not get involved in politics. A number of NGOs have pointed out that large economic investments provide economic and political comfort to host countries, including de facto “recognition” of rogue regimes. Violence associated with oil company operations most often results from the use of force by government security forces against local protesters who opposed oil industry operations.

8 trillion. The IMF staff working paper found that services provided by such centers, and the banks, lawyers, accountants, and company formation agents working with them, had contributed to global financial crises by hiding risk and loss in ways that professional home country supervisors and auditors were unable to penetrate. • In Argentina, some $3 billion to $4 billion were lost or hidden offshore by April 1995; • In Venezuela, billions in problem loans were moved offshore in 1994; • In South Korea, insider dealings off-shore circumvented regulatory limits on bank lending from 1993 through 1996; 39 • In Thailand, poor lending decisions were “rolled over” offshore from 1993 through 1996; • In Malaysia, some $10 billions in losses were hidden offshore in 1997.

17 The sheer scope of the present anti-money laundering initiatives 17 Litan, id, p. 197. 42 provide some indication that a lack of global financial transparency has created just such a crisis, requiring a comprehensive global response. In the late 1990’s, money laundering became recognized as a global problem requiring a global response. This response now includes new international instruments, such as the 2000 United Nations Convention to Combat Transnational Organized Crime and the Second Money Laundering Directive, issued by the European Union in late 2001.

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