Waste Management

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By Jitendra Saxena (Eds.)

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To achieve this, the filter pores should be relatively uniform in size and remain relatively constant throughout the filtration. Further­ more, the stated nominal pore size must approximate the "effective" pore size. , the median retention diameter) (229). Filtration characteristics are best evaluated by utilizing a retention curve as 27 Inorganic Physicochemical Speciation 100 c o c s Φ c υ Φ 100 h ì> û. 16 Particle Diameter (jjm ) Fig. 3. Retention curves for (A) cellulose filters (Millipore), (B) glass fiber filters (Whatman GFC and GFA, Reeve Angel 984 H), (C) polycarbonate filters (Nuclepore), (D) silver filters (Flotronics).

The im­ plications of such kinetic influences will be considered below. Alternatively, the retention of trace metals associated with organometallic complexes having sta­ bility constants greater than that of the functional group of the chelating resin will not be quantitative, but dependent upon mass action effects. Since functional groups exhibiting very high affinities toward transition metals are chosen in order to attain maximal metal recovery from solution, some authors suggest that natu­ rally occurring organometallic complexes are unlikely to have stability constants higher than the synthetic chelators (707).

This suggests that ozonolysis may be an acceptable oxidative procedure for speciation studies, but only in circum­ stances in which the precipitation of iron and manganese oxyhydroxides is un­ likely to occur. Adsorbent resins such as Amberlite XAD have long been used to investigate organic material in seawater (218, 248) and potable waters (49). More recently, Sugimura et al. (252) examined the speciation of several trace metals in seawater using XAD-2 resin. They applied seawater at natural pH to retain neutral and basic organometallic species and at pH 3 to isolate the acidic organic complexes.

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